CODE OF CONDUCT MODULE

OBJECTIVE:

        The Code of Conduct Course is designed to create awareness amongst police Officers, who are performing their duties in Operational Policing. The purposes of this course is to sensitize and enable the course participants on:

(a)  relevant provisions of Code of ethic mentioned in the Universal Islamic Declarations as well as the  Universal Human Rights charters in interest of  administration of justice

(b) the guidelines  and discipline concerning code of conduct.

(c) delivering fair, impartial and effective police services to the communities they serve.

(d) their role to maintain public confidence in the police by ensuring that police are accountable to Allah and the public.

(e) the duty to act without favour or personal advantage,

(b) treating all persons or classes of persons equally, regardless of race, colour, ancestry, place of origin, political belief, religion, marital status, family status, physical or mental disability age or economic and social status, and

(c) upholding the rights and freedoms guaranteed or protected by law.

Law Enforcement Code of Conduct

All law enforcement officers must be fully aware of the ethical responsibilities of their position and must strive constantly to live up to the highest possible standards of professional policing.

Majority of the Professional  Police believes that  it is  important for the  police officers to have clear vision for the performance of  their duties consistent with required  standards by adopting  warranted   ethical mandates as guidelines to meet policing objectives:-

Primary Responsibilities of a Police Officer

A police officer acts as an official representative of government who is required and trusted to work within the law. The officer’s powers and duties are conferred by statute. The fundamental duties of a police officer include serving the community, safeguarding lives and property, protecting the innocent, keeping the peace and ensuring the rights of all to liberty, equality and justice.

Performance of the Duties of a Police Officer

A police officer shall perform all duties impartially, without favor or affection or ill will and without regard to status, sex, race, religion, political belief or aspiration. All citizens will be treated equally with courtesy, consideration and dignity.

Officers will never allow personal feelings, animosities or friendships to influence official conduct. Laws will be enforced appropriately and courteously and, in carrying out their responsibilities, officers will strive to obtain maximum cooperation from the public. They will conduct themselves in appearance and deportment in such a manner as to inspire confidence and respect for the position of public trust they hold.

Discretion

A police officer will use responsibly the discretion vested in his position and exercise it within the law. The principle of reasonableness will guide the officer’s determinations, and the officer will consider all surrounding circumstances in determining whether any legal action shall be taken.

Consistent and wise use of discretion, based on professional policing competence, will do much to preserve good relationships and retain the confidence of the public. There can be difficulty in choosing between conflicting courses of action. It is important to remember that a timely word of advice rather than arrest—which may be correct in appropriate circumstances—can be a more effective means of achieving a desired end.

Use of Force

A police officer will never employ unnecessary force or violence and will use only such force in the discharge of duty as is reasonable in all circumstances.

The use of force should be used only with the greatest restraint and only after discussion, negotiation and persuasion have been found to be inappropriate or ineffective. While the use of force is occasionally unavoidable, every police officer will refrain from unnecessary infliction of pain or suffering and will never engage in cruel, degrading or inhuman treatment of any person.

Confidentiality

Whatever a police officer sees, hears or learns of that is of a confidential nature will be kept secret unless the performance of duty or legal provision requires otherwise.

Members of the public have a right to security and privacy, and information obtained about them must not be improperly divulged.

Integrity

A police officer will not engage in acts of corruption or bribery, nor will an officer condone such acts by other police officers.

The public demands that the integrity of police officers be above reproach. Police officers must, therefore, avoid any conduct that might compromise integrity and thus undercut the public confidence in a law enforcement agency. Officers will refuse to accept any gifts, presents, subscriptions, favors, gratuities or promises that could be interpreted as seeking to cause the officer to refrain from performing official responsibilities honestly and within the law.

Police officers must not receive private or special advantage from their official status. Respect from the public cannot be bought; it can only be earned and cultivated.

Cooperation with Other Police Officers and Agencies

Police officers will cooperate with all legally authorized agencies and their representatives in the pursuit of justice.

An officer or agency may be one among many organizations that may provide law enforcement services to a jurisdiction. It is imperative that a police officer assist colleagues fully and completely with respect and consideration at all times.

Personal-Professional Capabilities

        Police officers will be responsible for their own standard of professional performance and will take every reasonable opportunity to enhance and improve their level of knowledge and competence.

        Through study and experience, a police officer can acquire the high level of knowledge and competence that is essential for the efficient and effective performance of duty. The acquisition of knowledge is a never-ending process of personal and professional development that should be pursued constantly.

Private Life

        Police officers will behave in a manner that does not bring discredit to their agencies or themselves.

        A police officer’s character and conduct while off duty must always be exemplary, thus maintaining a position of respect in the community in which he or she lives and serves. The officer’s personal behavior must be beyond reproach.

Law Enforcement Code of Ethics

                     As a law enforcement officer, every police officer fundamental duty is to:

                     serve the community;

                     safeguard lives and property

                     to protect the innocent against deception

                     the weak against oppression or intimidation

                     the peaceful against violence or disorder  and to respect the constitutional rights of all to liberty, equality and justice

                     Must keep his private life unsullied as an example to all and must behave in a manner that does not bring discredit to himself or to his agency.

                     He should maintain courageous calm in the face of danger, scorn or ridicule; develop self-restraint;

                     Be constantly mindful of the welfare of others.

                     He must be honest in thought and deed both in his personal and official life,

                     He must be exemplary in obeying the law and the regulations of his department.

                     Whatever he see or hear of a confidential nature or that is confided to him in his official capacity must  be kept ever secret unless disclosure is necessary in the performance of his duty.

                     He should never act officiously or permit personal feelings, prejudices, political beliefs, aspirations, animosities or friendships to influence his decisions.

                     With no compromise for crime and with relentless prosecution of criminals, he is bound to enforce the law courteously and appropriately without fear or favor, malice or ill will

                     He should never employ unnecessary force or violence and

                     never accept gratuities or gifts etc.

                     Must recognize the badge of his office as a symbol of public faith,

                     he should accept it as a public trust to be held so long as  he remains the police service.

                     He must not engage in acts of corruption or bribery, nor I condone such acts by other police officers.

                     He is required to cooperate with all legally authorized agencies and their representatives in the pursuit of justice.

                     He should know that he is alone responsible for his own standard of professional performance

                     He is required to take every reasonable opportunity to enhance and improve his level of knowledge and competence.

                     He must constantly strive to achieve these objectives and ideals, by dedicating himself before Allah to his chosen profession . . . law enforcement

                     All law enforcement officers must be fully aware of the ethical responsibilities of their position and must strive constantly to live up to the highest possible standards of professional policing.

                     The International Association of Chiefs of Police believes it important that police officers have clear advice and counsel available to assist them in performing their duties consistent with these standards, and has adopted the following ethical mandates as guidelines to meet these ends

                     Primary Responsibilities of a Police Officer is:

                     To act as an official representative of government who is required and trusted to work within the law.

                     His powers and duties are conferred by statute.

                     The fundamental duties of a police officer includes:

                     serving the community

                     safeguarding lives and property

                     protecting the innocent

                     keeping the peace and

                     ensuring the rights of all to liberty, equality and justice.

                     Performance of the Duties of a Police Officer

                     A police officer shall perform all duties impartially, without favor or affection or ill will and without regard to status, sex, race, religion, political belief or aspiration. All citizens will be treated equally with courtesy, consideration and dignity.

                     Officers will never allow personal feelings, animosities or friendships to influence official conduct. Laws will be enforced appropriately and courteously and, in carrying out their responsibilities, officers will strive to obtain maximum cooperation from the public. They will conduct themselves in appearance and deportment in such a manner as to inspire confidence and respect for the position of public trust they hold.

                     Discretion

                     A police officer will use responsibly the discretion vested in his position and exercise it within the law. The principle of reasonableness will guide the officer’s determinations, and the officer will consider all surrounding circumstances in determining whether any legal action shall be taken.

                     Consistent and wise use of discretion, based on professional policing competence, will do much to preserve good relationships and retain the confidence of the public. There can be difficulty in choosing between conflicting courses of action. It is important to remember that a timely word of advice rather than arrest—which may be correct in appropriate circumstances—can be a more effective means of achieving a desired end.

                     Use of Force

                     A police officer will never employ unnecessary force or violence and will use only such force in the discharge of duty as is reasonable in all circumstances.

                     The use of force should be used only with the greatest restraint and only after discussion, negotiation and persuasion have been found to be inappropriate or ineffective. While the use of force is occasionally unavoidable, every police officer will refrain from unnecessary infliction of pain or suffering and will never engage in cruel, degrading or inhuman treatment of any person.

                     Confidentiality

                     Whatever a police officer sees, hears or learns of that is of a confidential nature will be kept secret unless the performance of duty or legal provision requires otherwise.

                     Members of the public have a right to security and privacy, and information obtained about them must not be improperly divulged.

                     Integrity

                     A police officer will not engage in acts of corruption or bribery, nor will an officer condone such acts by other police officers.

                     The public demands that the integrity of police officers be above reproach. Police officers must, therefore, avoid any conduct that might compromise integrity and thus undercut the public confidence in a law enforcement agency. Officers will refuse to accept any gifts, presents, subscriptions, favors, gratuities or promises that could be interpreted as seeking to cause the officer to refrain from performing official responsibilities honestly and within the law.

                     Police officers must not receive private or special advantage from their official status. Respect from the public cannot be bought; it can only be earned and cultivated.

                     Cooperation with Other Police Officers and Agencies

                     Police officers will cooperate with all legally authorized agencies and their representatives in the pursuit of justice.

                     An officer or agency may be one among many organizations that may provide law enforcement services to a jurisdiction. It is imperative that a police officer assist colleagues fully and completely with respect and consideration at all times

                     Personal-Professional Capabilities

                     Police officers will be responsible for their own standard of professional performance and will take every reasonable opportunity to enhance and improve their level of knowledge and competence.

                     Through study and experience, a police officer can acquire the high level of knowledge and competence that is essential for the efficient and effective performance of duty. The acquisition of knowledge is a never-ending process of personal and professional development that should be pursued constantly

                     Private Life

                     Police officers will behave in a manner that does not bring discredit to their agencies or themselves.

                     A police officer’s character and conduct while off duty must always be exemplary, thus maintaining a position of respect in the community in which he or she lives and serves. The officer’s personal behavior must be beyond reproach.

Law Enforcement Oath of Honor

                     WHEREAS, integrity is acknowledged by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) to be one of the most significant needs throughout the world for virtually all professions, and because the IACP seeks to demonstrate worldwide leadership in the advancement of professional honor, integrity, and ethics, and

                     WHEREAS, an oath is universally recognized to be a solemn pledge someone makes when they sincerely intend to commit to what they advocate and affirm; and

                     WHEREAS, sincere commitment to an oath can provide vital guidance during a life's most crucial decisions, a moral anchoring that can endure the test of time and a solid, emotional foundation for officer's facing their most difficult moments; 

                     WHEREAS, the IACP's international scope requires flexibility in language of the oath, but not in its principle; now therefore be it

                     RESOLVED, that the IACP, duly assembled at its 107th Annual Conference in San Diego, California, to embody its commitment to ethics, adopts the Law Enforcement Oath of Honor and advocates its adoption by law enforcement organizations; and the IACP adopts the IACP Membership Law Enforcement Oath of Honor for reciting when the opportunity presents itself at official gatherings of the association as a testament to our association's commitment to ethics; and be it

                     FURTHER RESOLVED, that the Law Enforcement Oath of Honor can be adjusted as appropriate for nations, countries or governments but shall contain the following words. On my honor, I will never betray my country , my integrity, my character or the public trust. I will always have the courage to hold myself and others accountable for our actions. I will always uphold the Constitution my community, land, nation  and the agency I serve; and be it

FURTHER RESOLVED, that the IACP Membership Law Enforcement Oath of Honor for reciting when the opportunity presents itself at official gatherings of the association shall contain the following words: On my honor, I will never betray my profession, my integrity, my character or the public trust. I will always have the courage to hold myself and others accountable for our actions. I will always uphold the laws of my country, my community and the agency I serve

Use of Force  

A police officer will never employ unnecessary force or violence and will use only such force in the discharge of duty as is reasonable in all circumstances.

The use of force should be used only with the greatest restraint and only after discussion, negotiation and persuasion have been found to be inappropriate or ineffective.

While the use of force is occasionally unavoidable, every police officer will refrain from unnecessary infliction of pain or suffering and will never engage in cruel, degrading or inhuman treatment of any person.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE

This policy recognizes that the use of force by law enforcement requires constant evaluation.

Even at its lowest level, the use of force is a serious responsibility.

The purpose of this policy is to provide officers of this department with guidelines on the reasonable use of force.

While there is no way to specify the exact amount or type of reasonable force to be applied in any situation, each officer is expected to use these guidelines to make such decisions in a professional, impartial and safe manner.

PHILOSOPHY

The use of force by law enforcement personnel is a matter of critical concern both to the public and to the law enforcement community.

Officers are involved on a daily basis in numerous and varied human encounters and when warranted, may use force in carrying out their duties.

Officers must have an understanding of, and true appreciation for, the limitations of their authority. This is especially true with respect to officers overcoming resistance while engaged in the performance of their duties.

This department recognizes and respects the value of all human life and dignity without prejudice to anyone.

It is also understood that vesting officers with the authority to use reasonable force and protect the public welfare requires a careful balancing of all human interests.

POLICY

It is the policy of this Department that officers shall use only that amount of force that reasonably appears necessary, given the facts and circumstances perceived by the officer at the time of the event, to effectively bring an incident under control.

"Reasonableness" of the force used must be judged from the perspective of a reasonable officer on the scene at the time of the incident.

Any interpretation of “reasonableness" must allow for the fact that police officers are often forced to make split-second decisions in circumstances that are tense, uncertain and rapidly evolving-about the amount of force that is necessary in a particular situation.

Continuum of Force

Detention

Command Presence

Verbal Command

Physical Control

Restraints (handcuffs and?)

Non-lethal Force (physical, baton, gas)

Lethal – weapons designed to produce fatality